Thursday, July 24, 2008

Civilizations - Соёл иргэншлvvд

Old World

Sumer (The Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer is widely accepted as the first complex civilization to develop on Earth)
Ancient Near East
Ancient Egypt
Minoan civilization
Prehistoric Armenia
Indus Valley Civilization
Helladic period Ancient Greece
Bronze Age China

New World

Norte Chico, Caral, or Caral-Supe Civilization
Aztec civilization
Maya civilization
Inca Empire
Zapotec civilization

Classical Antiquity

Karl Jaspers, the German historical philosopher, proposed that the ancient civilizations were affected greatly by an Axial Age in the period between 600 BCE-400 BCE during which a series of male sages, prophets, religious reformers and philosophers, from China, India, Iran, Israel and Greece, changed the direction of civilizations forever. Julian Jaynes proposed that this was associated with the "collapse of the bicameral mind", during which subconscious ideas were recognized as simply subjective, rather than being voices of spirits. William H. McNeill proposed that this period of history was one in which culture contact between previously separate civilizations saw the "closure of the oecumene", and led to accelerated social change from China to the Mediterranean, associated with the spread of coinage, larger empires and new religions. This view has recently been championed by Christopher Chase-Dunn and other world systems theorists.

Civilizations affected by these developments include

Mediterranean Civilizations of the Classical Period

Ancient Greece and Hellenic civilization
The Roman Empire
Second Temple Judaism

Middle Eastern Civilizations

Iranian Civilization since the Achaemenids
Phoenician Civilization
Islamic Civilizations
Georgian and Armenian Civilizations

Indian Hindu and Buddhist Civilizations

Mauryan and Post-Mauryan Indian Civilization
Gupta Empire in North India
Chola Empire in South India
Civilizations of ancient Ceylon

East Asian Civilizations

Chinese Civilization
Korean Civilization
Vietnamese Civilization
Japanese Civilization

The Civilizations of South East Asia

Funan and Chen-la
Angkor Cambodia
Sri Vijaya, Singhasari and Majapahit Civilizations
Burmese, Thai and Lao Civilizations

Central Asian Civilization

Tibetan Civilization
Turkic and Mongol Civilizations

European Civilizations

Western Christendom
Byzantium and Eastern Orthodox Christendom
Russian Civilization

Since the voyages of discovery by European explorers of the 15th and 16th century, another development has occurred whereby which European forms of government, industry, commerce and culture have spread from Western Europe, to the Americas, South Africa, Australia, and through colonial empires, to the rest of the planet. Today it would appear that we are all parts of a planetary industrializing world civilization, divided between many nations and languages.

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